Current Research Projects

Sustainable Urban Transport in Less Motoried Countries Research and Training
Volvo Research and Educational Foundations, Sweden

Pedestrian Safe Public Transport Systems: Infrastructure, Operations, Vehicles, Policies and Legislation
Volvo Education Research Foundations, Sweden

Review and evaluation of traffic impact assessment (TIA) study of the transit oriented development (TOD) influence zone plan
Shaktri Sustainable Energy Foundation

Non motorized transport planning and design manual and policy guidelines for cities
Climate works foundation/Shakti Foundation

Study of Community Design for Traffic Safety in India
IATSS, Japan  

Driver behavior study in India
Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Japan

Estimation of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of in-use Vehicles in Different Driving Conditions
Petroleum Conservation Research Association  

Promoting Low Carbon Transport in India
UNEP Risoe Centre, Denmark

Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport at TRIPP
Ministry of Urban Development

Estimating risk to road users and impact of active traffic calming measures on vehicular speed in highway work zones
Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN),
 

Safety assessment and risk management for Patna river front development project
Bihar Urban Infrastructure Dev. Corporation


 


Recent Research Projects

Road safety political mapping in India
GRSP, Geneva

Public Health Impacts in Urban Environments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Strategies (PURGE)
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK

Review of Contractural Provisions, Establishment of Work Zone Safety Audit Procedure: Conducting Work Zone Safety Audit (LMNHP)
National Highway Authority of India

Master Plan for Bus Rapid Transit System Integrated with Bicycle Network in Pune
Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation

Small, Low Cost High Efficiency Vehicles and Future Urban Transport
Bajaj Auto Limited

Planning and Implementation of BRTS Project in Indore
Indore City Transport Services Limited

Safer Bus Design
Ashok Leyland Ltd.

Design Manual for BRT Systems in Indian Cities
UNDP and Ministry of Urban Development

Low Cost Mobility Initiatives - LOCOMOTIVES
Interface for Cycling Expertise (ICE), The Netherlands  

Bus Rapid Transit System in Hyderabad
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation

Operating Plan for the Implementation of HCBS on 15kms Stretch of Ambedkar Nagar to ISBT Corridor
RITES Ltd.

Implementation of High Capacity Bus System/Electric Trolley Bus Corridors
Government of National Capital Territory Delhi  

Revamping the Passenger and Traffic Flow at IGI Airport
Airport Authority of India

Airport Traffic Circulation Improvement on Northern Region
Airport Authority of India

India Livable Communities Initiative
Institute for Transport Development Policy

Technology Development for Collecting Bone and Tissue Properties and Development of Human Body FE Model
Japan Automobile Research Institute

Technological Evaluation of RTVs
Government of National Capital Territory Delhi

Development of Methodology for Modelling of Airbags
Japan Automobile Research Institute

Development of Methodology for Modeling of Airbags for OOP Study
Japan Automobile Research Institute

Design of Optical Transmission Measurement Device for Automobile Glass
Delhi Police

Computer Simulation of Car-Motorcycle Crash Using PAMCRASH
Japan Automobile Research Institute

Review of Transport, Environment and Health Issues and Policies in Mega-Cities in Emerging Economies
World Health Organisation, European Centre for Environment and Health

Site Specific Designs for 88 Bus Shelters on Northern Ring Road
Delhi Transport Corporation

Development of Guidelines for Establishment of Safety and Emission Standards of Relevance for Automobile Industry
Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers

Future of Road Transport in India
OEIL, University of Paris

Guidelines on Traffic Calming on NH and SH passing through towns and villages
Asian Institute of Transort Development / Ministry of Surface Transport

Road User Behaviour at Intersections in Delhi.
Association of Indian Automobile Manufacturers(AIAM) India.

Three Wheeler Crashworthiness,
Bajaj Auto Ltd.

Urban Transport and Green House Gas: case study- 1999- present
University of California, Davis and PEW Foundation, USA

Study of Rail Stress Calculation Procedure Being Followed at RDSO
Research Design and Standards Organisations

Gujarat ORET Prevention Project - Study on the Aetiology of Traffic Accidents and Injuries
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad


Design of Safer Truck Fronts
Volvo Corporation, Sweden

Development of a Bicycle Master Plan for Delhi
Government of Delhi.

Economic Benefits of Cycling- Case Study Delhi
I-CE, The Netherlands

Engine Modifications for Fuel Efficiency and Emissions

Maruti Udyog Ltd.

Ergonomic Analysis, Vibration Reduction and Safety Improvement of Indian Tractors
Department of Science and Technology

Evaluation of Auto Dipper from Safety Point of View
Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers

Evaluation of Capacity Augmentation for Indian Highways
Ministry of Surface Transport, Asian Institute of Transport Development

Evaluation of Road Safety Cooperation Between Developed and Developing Countries
Global Traffic Safety Trust, Australia

Guidelines for Design of Ambulance for Indian Conditions
Eicher Motors Ltd.

Rationalisation of Infrastructure Standards.

Delhi Development Authority (DDA).

Road Accident Analysis
The World Bank.

Road Safety Audit of Noida Bridge Project
Noida Toll Bridge Co. Ltd.

Air Quality Impact Assessment by Changeover to CNG Buses in Delhi   FULL REPORT
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.


Student Project

Design Guidelines for an Urban Bus
Eicher Motors Ltd.


DEVELOPMENT OF AIRBAG MODULE MODELS

Japan Automobile Research Institute
Anoop Chawla, Sudipto Mukherjee and Dinesh Mohan

Project Details
A simulation model will be developed (by IIT) for a specified passenger side airbag.  This will be done on the basis of the folding characteristics, inflator characteristics, airbag material properties and other relevant data supplied by JARI.  The airbag module model will include the basic airbag and a base plate used in the airbag tests.  For this purpose tests, as needed, will be conducted by JARI. An inflation test has already been carried out by JARI for the airbag so as to validate the developed model.  A simple contact test will also be done between the airbag and a dummy head without skin.
The work will include the following:
1. Meshing of the airbag folds
2. Rough validation of the inflation process
3. Validation of the inflation process against experimental videos of the inflation in x,y and z directions.
4. Adjustment of the inflation process and contact phenomenon including head acceleration against simple contact test between the airbag and head without skin.

REVAMPING THE PASSENGER AND TRAFFIC FLOW AT IGI AIRPORT

Airport Authority of India
Geetam Tiwari

Scope of work

1. Study of existing problems related to circulation conflicts between passengers and parked motor vehicles at arrival and departure terminals (domestic and international terminals).
2. Redesign of arrival and departure circulation for pedestrians and vehicles based on existing and future demand (domestic terminal 1B, domestic arrival terminal and international arrival and departure wings)

DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SAFETY AND EMISSION STANDARDS OF RELEVANCE TO THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers
Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari

Scope of Work

Evaluation of the procedures followed in establishing safety and emission standards for the automobile industry In India. Comparison of these procedures with those followed in selected OECD countries. Development of guidelines suitable for the Indian context for future implementation specifically on the issues of Auto dippers, Seat belt, Euro-II norms, Diesel vs petrol controversy, immediate conversion of diesel buses to CNG.

Methodology

The present scenario makes it imperative that we examine our law making scenario and suggest alternate and more logical methods which would benefit both the industry and the general public.

The procedure which should be followed for establishing a safety and emission standards will be based on:

 

THREE WHEELER CRASHWORTHINESS

Bajaj Auto Ltd.
Dinesh Mohan, Anoop Chawla and Sudipto Mukherjee

Objectives

Methods

The Software: The MADYMO 3-D Crash Victim Simulation software3 will be used to evaluate the crash properties of the TST and the modified TST structure in accidents with pedestrians and a rigid surface. Two setups will be used in this study. The first one represents a pedestrian dummy impacted by a TST front, as shown. The second one represents a TST with one driver and one passenger in a frontal impact with a rigid flat surface. In the TST-pedestrian simulations the model can be divided into two separate systems: one for the pedestrian dummy and one for the TST. In the TST-flat surface simulations, the model can be divided into three separate systems: one for the TST, driver dummy and passenger dummy, respectively.

The TST model will be made based on the dimensions of the vehicle and inertial properties supplied by BAL. All surfaces will be modelled as planes and ellipsoids simulating the real shapes of the TST. The model for the pedestrian, driver and passenger will be based on dimensions for a 50 percentile male approximated for Indian conditions.

Simulations - Phase I: The model developed as above will be exercised for impacts with a pedestrian and a rigid flat surface respectively at 10, 20 and 30 km/h. Assumed values will be used at this stage based on our experience and data available from literature. The MADYMO model gives the kinematics of the human beings during impact. Based on these kinematics the contact surfaces of the TST with the driver, passenger and the pedestrian will be determined. The MADYMO model also calculates the impact forces, displacements and decelerations of the various body parts undergoing impact. The body parts suffering unacceptable injury according to known biomechanical tolerance values will be selected for further analysis. The parameters generally used for this purpose are: head acceleration, chest acceleration, abdomen, pelvis and extremity impact forces. The tolerance limits used for analysis are: head acceleration of 150 g or maximum HIC of 1,000, a chest acceleration at the centre of gravity of 60 g or deflections of 500 mm, pelvis impact force of 10 kN, etc. The soft tissue structures are usually represented by a set of spring elements: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) by one spring each, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) by two springs. For the relative elongation of knee ligaments a tolerance limit of 15% is used. However, the latest criteria available in scientific literature will be taken into account at the time the work is done.

The TST surfaces these body parts impact will be selected for alteration. These results will be discussed with the sponsors to determine the ones which are amenable for alteration in the first phase. BAL will be requested to provide IITD with the force-displacement characteristics of these selected surfaces/structures.

Simulations - Phase II: The model developed in Phase I will be changed to incorporate the actual physical properties of the TST as supplied by BAL. The simulations will be run again to determine the injury indices of the pedestrian, driver and passenger with the realistic properties of the TST. The worst injury causing surfaces will be short listed for analysis and alteration. Simulations will be run again as before to do sensitivity analyses. These will involve changing shapes and properties of surfaces for impacts at 10, 20 and 30 km/h impact velocities. Optimisation programmes will be run to minimise injuries and the best combination of impact surface properties will be selected for further analysis.

Simulations - Phase III: A discussion will be held with BAL at this stage to determine surfaces and structures that are amenable for alterations based on economic and manufacturing limitations. Further, it will be decided in these discussions which structures can be modified and which structures can be padded, etc. After finalising these issues the model will be run again to determine the improvements over the original design.

GUJARAT ORET PREVENTION PROJECT - STUDY ON THE AETIOLOGY OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari

Background

TNOprevention and health are consultants to the prevention component of the ORET project. They have carried out two missions in Gujarat to identify the needs in the area of prevention interventions as part of ORET project. The missions identified several issues related to health care capacity and utilisation related to Reproductive and child health and injuries and accidents through field observation, discussions and stakeholder meetings. As a result of the missions it is felt that further in-depth studies (surveys) are needed to understand and quantify the needs and resources in the selected area of Saberkantha district. The mission report gives details of the three studies proposed by the TNO team. Details of these studies are given below.

TNO team has requested help in providing technical guidance and implementation of these studies. This proposal gives outline of the mechanism for carrying out these studies and the estimated budget for it.

Study objectives and scope of work:

The study objectives and scope of work are adapted from the description in the Mission Report Gujarat II Pages. 32-36 and is given below. If required some modification in the study description and details will be done when detailed design is prepared.

Based on the conclusions of the mission and in close collaboration with the Government of Gujarat health care officials a plan of action for the research studies was developed. The plan of action includes three studies is as given below:

1. Health care capacity survey;

2. Health care utilisation survey;

3. Aetiology of traffic accidents and injuries survey.

TRANSPORT, ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH POLICY SCENARIOS AND OPTIONS FOR LARGE CITIES IN EMERGING ECONOMICS

Sponsor: World Health Organisation, European Centre for Environment and Health
Project In-charge: Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari

Building national resources, developing scenarios and promoting multi-stakeholder debate around the environment, health and other implications of transportation policy options.

Problem statement:

Current transportation policies in megacities worldwide lead to major threats to health; through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, and reduction in physical activities, adverse impact on urban quality of life and by contributing to climate change.

Large city municipalities and local government institutions have much of the responsibility for the transport and land use policy decisions that will determine their environment and health impacts. They are also the stage for stakeholders’ negotiation about various policy options, and where people’s perceptions of their risks and benefits may play an important role. A large proportion of the health impacts of transport is due to exposures in turban areas. There is also a lack of understanding of the traffic environments in emerging economies, where high levels of walking and cycling and use of public transport coexist with high rates of pollution and injuries. There is a need for adequate scientific knowledge and for bringing together experiences in emerging economy cities, in order to develop adequate response. The appropriate communication of findings from these impact assessments will facilitate a debate between stakeholders about the costs and benefits of different transport policy options. It is expected that these concerted initiatives would lead to the adoption of transport policies that optimize health gain, within a context of other societal values and priorities.

Proposal:

We propose to develop a project aimed at promoting environmental health gain through transportation policies in five large cities in different continents, over a period of 3 years. This will be done in collaboration with and involving researchers and policy makers in each of the selected cities. The project will be led by WHO, in cooperation with UNEP and HABITAT, and facilitated by a group of international experts with relevant professional experience. This development will build on the experience gained in the programme on transport environment and health of the European Region of WHO, and on international work on sustainable transport.

DESIGN OF SAFER TRUCK FRONTS

Volvo Corporation, Sweden
Dinesh Mohan

Objectives

The objectives of this project are as follows

Methodology

This work involved the following components.

  1. Preparation of dummy model for use in MADYMO software.

  2. Preparation of geometric models of truck types exisying in India.

  3. Determination of quasi-static force-deflection properties of truck panels of existing types in India.

  4. Collection of injury data for bus/truck - pedestrian impacts from Delhi hospitals.

  5. Modeling of truck- pedestrian impacts for existing truck types.

Optimization for truck front properties using MADYMO.

Conclusion

Head, thorax, pelvis, upper arms and lower and upper legs of pedestrians could suffer severe injuries in case of impact with fronts of all models of trucks. Impact with current models of trucks on Indian roads could result in severe injury to the directly hit leg even at 25 km/h. At 35 and 45 km/h, head and chest could sustain fatal injuries besides the lower legs. Bumper at a height of pelvis could result in hip injuries.

Significant reduction in injuries could be achieved by altering geometry of truck front as well as the force - deflection characteristics. Bumper height, bumper offset from the front and angle of truck front with vertical are main geometric features of truck fronts influencing injuries. Bumper width influences injuries to a lesser extent but increasing bumper width leads to a reduction in all injuries simultaneously, unlike other geometrical factors which reduce some injuries at the cost of others. This effect of bumper width result from using ellipsoid - ellipsoid contacts for modeling pedestrian leg and bumper impact in MADYMO. This effect needs to be further analysed using alternate techniques.

Pelvis injuries could be avoided for a fifty percentile Indian male if the bumper is below 75 cms height from the top edge of the bumper. It should be made 70 cms for the safety of shorter people. However, this results in increase in force on the leg. In the this project we did not consider bumper heights below the knee of fifty percentile Indian male. However, this aspect deservers attention if the truck and car bumpers have to made at the same height.

Providing a bumper offset reduces injuries to the head and thorax in case of impacts with side of dummy. Most trucks on Indian roads have small offsets including few recently launched models. Our investigations indicate that these models are not safe for pedestrians. Our simulations indicate that a bumper offset of 20 -25 cms is required for a fifty percentile Indian male. This aspect should be further investigated considering differnet dimensions of pedestrians and impacts involving front of the dummy.

The simulations performed in this project predict injuries to the lower legs. This is supported by the data collected from Delhi hospitals. These injuries do not result from the direct impact of the bumper but from the subsequent impact with the bumper when the pedestrian is thrown away. However, the magnitude of this force cannot be considered accurate as this contact occurs later in simulation and by that time the cumulative error in calculations has become quite large.

The trucks with a bonnet in front have sharp edges at the top of the bonnet. This kind of truck is not recommended because it can cause severe injuries to the head. Model 2A has a flat front but also has a sharp edge at the head level. Further, these trucks have a soft grille (where the thorax hits) while the local stifness at the sharp edge (where the head hits) is quite high. This results in major portion of impact energy being taken by head and also in injuries to neck due to excessive bending.

Force on upper legs is primarily a function of the height of the bumper. However varying bumper height does not reduce the force below safety limits. It is required to make the bumpers less stiff for pedestrians hits by covering it with a soft rubber padding.

Since the dummy used in this project (although has 3D properties) is not validated for impacts with front of dummy, only few preliminary observations could be made. Frontal impacts result in higher value of HIC compared to side impacts. Head hits the grille before the thorax. Both legs suffer high forces unlike side impacts where only the leg directly hit by bumper undergoes high a high force. Upper arm force is not critical in case of frontal impacts.

ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS, VIBRATION REDUCTION AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS OF INDIAN TRACTORS

Department of Science and Technology
Dinesh Mohan and Puneet Mahajan

Objectives

Ergonomic analysis of tractor controls. Measurement and evaluation of tractor vibration and developing counter measures. Biomechanical study to evaluate deleterious effects of vibrations on health of tractor operators.

Methodology

Analysis of location of tractor controls and force required to operate them with a view for optimisation for Indian conditions. Measurement of vibration at different interfaces and simulating on computer model. Isolation and mitigation solutions for vibration will be developed for different interfaces. Physiological impairment of tractor operators will be compared with control group using medical investigations and computer modeling. Solutions will be suggested to minimize the whole body vibration.

Conclusion

The Indian tractor driving farmers are subjected to whole body vibrations which exceed ISO 2631-1 (1985) health limits and "health caution zone" upper limits of ISO 2631-1 (1997) as shown by our experimental measurements and mathematical modeling. The tractor-driving farmers have significantly higher low back pain complaints than non-tractor driving farmers control group. However, MRI examination of the study group and the control group did not reveal any significant difference in degenerative changes between the two groups. The significant finding of this study are listed below.

The tractor seat vibration power spectral densities were maximum in 1-10 Hz frequency range for both calculated and measured values.

EVALUATION OF AUTO DIPPER FROM SAFETY POINT OF VIEW

Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers
Dinesh Mohan and Sudipto Mukherjee

Scope of Work

To assess the state of the art information on the effectiveness of auto dippers with respect to road safety, including work done abroad.

Summary

In the case of the rule mandating the use of the "auto dipper" in India, the essential stages of the necessary rule making process have been missed out completely. In fact, a technology was made available first and then attempts made to justify it. Since this technology does not have any scientific validation from any where else in the world, it is important that we review the whole process so that we are certain that the society is benefited and not harmed by this rule.

The accident data from India show that both on urban roads and intercity highways in India the traffic is highly heterogenous. Four-wheelers comprise much less than 50 percent of the vehicles in cities and generally less than 60 percent on highways. The accident data indicate that there are a large number of pedestrians also present urban and rural roads. Crashes involving 4-wheeled vehicles, especially buses and trucks, with vulnerable road users (pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists/scooterists) are the dominant types of crashes both on highways and inside cities. Any accident prevention strategies must give the maximum importance to the prevention of these types of crashes The fact that a large number of vulnerable road users get hit by 4-wheelers at night means that there is a need for better detection of these road users at distances which are adequate for safety manoeuvres like braking. Consequently, any measure that reduces the visibility distance of drivers of four-wheelers is likely to result in an increase in accidents. Headlight use policies should focus on integration of standards for all vehicle types, increase in detection capability of vulnerable road users on the left side of the road, and increase in the intensity of light to detect smaller objects at greater distances at night

An exhaustive review of papers on road accidents in India published in the last twenty years has also been done to understand the factors associated with crashes on urban and rural roads. In this review, not a single study was found which identified the problem of glare in a scientific manner as a factor associated with a significant number of road accidents at night. Therefore, if a scientific process of rule making base on available data was followed, there would be no case for mandating the use of "auto dippers" at present as we do not satisfy the requirements of the first stage.

Distinction must be made between temporal glare effect, disability glare and discomfort glare. Temporal glare is due to an abrupt change in the adaptation level of the driver (e.g. looking at the headlights of an oncoming car at night, entering an unlit tunnel in the daytime). Disability glare arises as a spatial static effect when a glare source is present in the visual field. Discomfort glare is purely a psychological effect. The discomfort felt by the driver and his ability to cope with the situation would be a weighted sum of the different types of glare, and this would differ from person to person. In this situation the subjective evaluation of each individual regarding the situation and his needs for coping with it in terms of intensity of light needed for discrimination of objects would also differ from person to person. These findings have important implications for headlight policy making. Because of the different kinds of glare effects, only the driver can decide how much light he wants ant any given time. Any mechanical device sensing light intensity a t a fixed height will be completely inadequate. Secondly, since the glare effect reduces much before the vehicles pass each other, it is very difficult to decide mechanically when a headlight should be on high beam or low beam.

Since bicycles in India do not have tail lights and most of the victims are bicyclists and pedestrians we have to be very careful with any measure which reduces the visibility distance of the driver of a motor vehicle . The current international research efforts are aimed at increasing the visibility distance and not decreasing them. None of scientists working in the area of visibility and safety even mention the use of "auto dippers". Instead, those working with very sophisticated devices like head up displays, night vision instruments and intelligent vehicle systems have not found an alternative to letting drivers to self select when to interact with these devices.

A review of international opinion reveals the following:

The above findings are supported by a report submitted byThe Automotive Research Association of India on the subject of "auto dippers". In this report they state:

Before the start of work on designing and testing "auto dippers", an assessment should have been made on how many road users are killed an injured in India because of the problem of glare and dazzle. This was not done. Our review of literature on epidemiology of road accidents in India shows that there is not a single study which quantifies the problem of glare and resulting accidents in a scientific manner. Therefore, initiation of the process to introduce "auto dippers" in India is not valid on a technical basis.

The designers of "auto dippers" in India appear to be ignorant of the voluminous literature on vision research, issues concerning perception and the driving task and the complexities involving different types of glare. If they were aware of this they would have known that: (i) the measurement of intensity of light at a point in the vehicle cannot be an adequate measure for judging what the driver actually sees, (ii) the effect of glare on a driver’s visual perception does not depend only on the intensity of incident light from headlamps but also the optical properties of the road and the objects on the road that the driver wants to detect, (iii) the effect of glare changes as two facing vehicles approach each other, and for reasons of safety it would be better for lights to be switched from low beam to high beam before the vehicles cross each other. These are just a few of the issues which have not been considered. Since the "auto dippers" have been designed in the absence of scientific knowledge concerning safety and glare, it is logically not possible for such instruments to be even theoretically efficient in solving the problem. In such a situation there was no need to waste time and effort in testing and evaluation.

All the trials done up to now only test the switching capabilities of the "auto dippers" from high beam to low beam and vice versa. These tests have no validity as they do not test the accident avoiding capability of the drivers using vehicles equipped with the devices. The test track trials should have involved comparison of small unlit object avoidance by drivers with and without "auto dippers" in different traffic, road and visibility conditions. It is important to understand that safety devices can only be recommended if they reduce the probability of the occurrence of crashes. The design of all the experiments and trials done up to now are invalid as they do measure the probability of reduction in accidents. In our opinion the trials done as of date just established whether the instruments function according to the specifications of the manufacturers, but these tests do not in any way prove whether the "auto dippers" can be considered a safety device.

An analysis of avoidance capability of drivers shows that a large number of pedestrians and other inconspicuous vulnerable road users would get killed by vehicles travelling at 50-80 km/h with headlights on low beam. On the other hand they would be much safer if the same vehicles had their high beam on. Since these velocities are normal cruising speeds in India, the introduction of "auto dippers" are likely to increase the number of fatalities and injuries in the country.

In conclusion we can state that the trials and tests done on "auto dippers" have not been done in a logical manner with no adherence to established scientific and statistical norms followed all over the world.

Conclusion

The introduction of a new road safety device must follow the same norms as when a new drug is introduced in the market. To understand this process regarding the mandating of the fitment of "auto dippers" on four-wheelers in India, we have reviewed the international literature available on the subject, obtained views of international experts, examined all the documents submitted by automobile and "auto dipper" manufacturers and reviewed reports on all tests done. Based on this analysis we give a summary of the process which should have been followed and what has actually been done.

ROAD SAFETY IN LOW INCOME COUNTRIES: ISSUES AND CONCERNS REGARDING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES

Global Traffic Safety Trust, Australia,
Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari

Objective

To write a chapter or a section for a GTST report from the perspective of a less motorised society to clarify the reasons for past failures and successes in the sharing of road safety theory and technology and to suggest measures that would make such collaborations more successful in the future.

Methodology

The following materials reviewed:

Papers submitted to journals by LIC professionals and by HIC experts dealing with road safety in LICs. We have in our library many unpublished manuscripts which will also be used as background material.

Proceedings of conferences held in LICs or dealing in particular with LICs, eg. Conferences organised by OECD in Africa and Asia.

HIC country reports and policy papers on road safety. Some are available with us as we have obtained them as consultants to various countries or they have been mailed to us.

Documents and reports submitted by participants at the annual international courses on injury control and road safety held at IIT Delhi every year since 1991.

The above documents reviewed to understand the dominant themes and policies common to most countries and the concerns of policy makers in these countries and what countermeasures they favour. Then an attempt was made to see whether there is any link between these policies and the kind of work that tends to be done in and for these countries by road safety professionals.

Conclusion

Road safety research in the HMCs has involved a large number of very gifted professionals from a variety of disciplines over the four decades. Some very innovative work has resulted in a theoretical understanding of "accidents" as a part of a complex interaction of sociological, psychological, physical and technological phenomena. The results could be exchanged and solutions transferred from one HMC to another because the conditions in these countries were roughly similar. This understanding of injuries and accidents has helped us design safer vehicles,roads and traffic management systems. A similar effort at research, development and innovation is needed in LMCs. A much larger group of committed professionals needs to be involved in this work for new ideas to emerge. Roving "experts" cannot do the job adequately enough.

Knowing the principles of epidemiology is more important for understanding issues than merely the availability of more data. Like all other developments in science and technology, road safety measures in the HMCs developed at certain historical junctures. They have an imprint of the prevailing socioeconomic situation embedded in them. When the HMC policies and designs are transferred to societies which have much lower per capita incomes, then large parts of these policies and designs are not successful. However, the attempt at introducing these measures in LMCs also sets up a demand for instituting systems and technologies which imitate those in HMCs. Since this is not always possible at low levels of income, these projects either attain the status of status symbols without much functional value, or remain in place as demonstration projects. While a few present small LMCs can experience high growth rates for some periods, most of the other countries will continue to function as LMCs for quite some time to come.

International cooperation in the area of road safety should focus on exchange of scientific principles, experiences of successes and failures, and in scientific training of a large number of professionals in the LMCs.

PREPARATION OF DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR AN AMBULANCE WITH STATE-OF-ART FEATURES

Eicher Motors Ltd., India
Dinesh Mohan, Rajesh Patel, Mathew Varghese

Objective

The broad objective of this project was to develop design guidelines for an ambulance to suit the need of different hospitals of India with optimum features as per current international trends.

Methodology

National and International literature on ambulance designs and latest trends in pre-hospital care system was compiled and studied. All available photographs and video clippings on ambulance design from advanced countries was studied

Visits was made to different hospitals of Delhi (four) and Indore (two) and ambulances in use was studied from the perspective of functionality, comfort, safety and aesthetic.

Tentative Design Guideline for the new Ambulance

Based on the information collected so far from different sources it was recommended to include following items in the new ambulance.

              Essential Items

  1. Three types of stretchers (to be developed)

  2. Trolley type: More details on the same is being procured from the Indian manufacturer based at Madras

  3. Scoop type: To be developed by us.

  4. Foldable type: The most appropriate one to be selected from whatever available in the Indian market.

  5. Portable medicine kit and a storage space for the same in ambulance: This will be developed once the list of all essential items/medicines to be kept inside is prepared by us. The final list will be ready by second week of October.

  6. Provision of oxygen cylinder/s.

  7. Adjustable hook strip for suspending IV fluid/blood bottles.

  8. Suction pump.

  9. Lighting system with 1 or 2 lights on sides, 2 lights on rear for better illumination of work area at night. This can be a low cost strong selling feature of the new ambulance.

  10. Flasher and siren system: It is advised to collect the information at your end about the different products available in the market at this stage, so that suitable products can be short listed before prototype making.

  11. Wash basin

  12. Dust bin

  13. Seating arrangement for paramedics and patient’s relatives.

    Add on Items

  1. Invertor based power backup system.

  2. Defibrillator unit for heart patients.

  3. ECG monitor.

  4. Intubation equipment.

  5. Communication equipments (two way radio?)

  6. Fire extinguisher

  7. Fan/s

  8. Foldable wheel chair

Rationalization of infrastructure standards for planning process

Delhi Development Authority (DDA)
Geetam Tiwari

Scope of work

Methodology

A total of 2285 respondents provided answers to the questionnaire from different areas of Delhi. The largest number of respondents was from the West with 644 forms filled in (28.2%). This was followed by the East (617 forms – 27.0%), the North (514 forms – 22.5%), and the South had the smallest number (510 forms – 22.3%). The schedule contained a number of questions relating to total water consumption, various purposes for which water was used, the source of water, income levels, type of housing with amenities and utilities, satisfaction levels, and sewerage problems. The tables and graphs given below/in the Appendix provide an overall picture of the views of the respondents, both at the aggregate as well as the zonal levels

Conclusion

Road Accident Analysis of – MUTP II Accident Study

The World Bank
Geetam Tiwari, Dinesh Mohan and Richard Muskaug

Terms of Reference

Methodology

The Mumbai Police provided the accident reports of all fatal accidents for the years 1996-1997, and non-fatal accident data for one year (1997). The Thane and New Mumbai Police provided fatal and non-fatal reports for the year 1997. Only those details from the forms were coded which are expected to be relatively more reliable. A special coding form was developed in association with the Mumbai Police Department. The data from the police reports were coded on to these forms and then entered onto a computer software. The police records do not have enough details to fill in all the variables accurately and reliably. The variables which we can be reasonably reliable are listed below:

Date, day, hit and run, type of accident (head on, rear end, etc), accident spot (type of junction, straight road), victim type (pedestrian, vehicle occupant, etc), sex, age (not always known or accurate), vehicle type, vehicle manoeuver.

Frequency counts and cross tabulations for these variables were made and cluster analysis done to understand the factors associated with high crash locations.

Recommendation

Fatality rates in Mumbai can be reduced mainly by area-wide measures on a high accidents corridors by institution of traffic calming techniques along with provision of much better facilities for pedestrians. Speed control of trucks and cars should be the focus of all future policies. It is quite clear that much more importance has to be given to reduction of accidents in mid-block locations rathe that intersections. On the basis of the accident patterns listed above and the characteristics of the identified corridors it is possible to make a few recommendations:

The accident recording system in Mumbai city has to be improved and training given for recording and analysis of the same. It is particularly important that locations of accident be recorded in the standardised format,

In view of the high pedestrian rates throughout the day except in the early hours in the morning most countermeasures should focus on providing better facilities for these road users and implementation of traffic calming techniques.

Vehicle drivers in Mumbai must be instructed to keep their headlight on during the night.

Safer truck, bus and three-wheeler fronts would reduce the incidence of fatal and non-fatal pedestrian crashes. Future policies should include the development and installation of such vehicle fronts.

Alcohol involvement of drivers and pedestrians may be one of the reasons for high pedestrian involvement rate at night. Efforts of reduction of driving under the influence of alcohol should be a part of a long term accident reduction policy.

Safe pedestrian crossing facilities are required, both at intersections and, in particular, in between the intersections.

Pedestrian fences must be erected to prevent crossing between the safe crossing facilities provided. It is anticipated that such safe facilities should be provided very 500 metres otherwise the fences would be broken by road users.

Safe pedestrian crossing facilities are particularly important between the intersections when flyovers are built, because these will tend to increase the speed further if measures are not taken.

In general it can be said that there are only three ways to provide safe crossing for the pedestrians. By separation in space (underpasses), by separation in time (traffic lights) and/or by reduced vehicle speeds (speed breakers). Special efforts have to be made to design underpass which are friendlier and safer than the current design in vogue. As far as possible underpasses should be open on both sides of the road so that the pedestrian are not scared of going to dark unsafe areas. In those sections of highways where the road surface is higher than the surrounding area it would relatively be easier to make small underpasses which are open at both ends. At other locations it would be worthwhile to consider raising road levels to provide 2.5 m high tunnels for pedestrians.

Traffic has to be slower down by traffic calming measures when it enters higher density business and residential areas. This is particularly true for the Eastern Express and Western Express Highways.

Better data could be provided if a prospective accident study is carried out


 

Road Safety Audit of Noida Bridge Project

Noida Toll Bridge Co. Ltd.
Dinesh Mohan, Sandeep Gandhi, Anvita Anand

Introduction

The DNDF is a 6-km stretch of 4-lane highway connecting Delhi and Noida. The interface points are near Ashram Chowk on the Ring Road at the Delhi end and main Noida road on the Noida end. It crosses over the Yamuna and its adjoining grazing fields. The Toll Plaza for revenue collection is situated almost 4 Km from the Delhi end. Almost immediately after the operationalization of the DNDF, a number of accidents were reported over the stretch, causing justifiable concern to the Noida Toll Bridge Authority. This concern has necessitated a detailed safety audit of the DNDF, conducted by the Transportation research and Injury prevention Program (TRIPP) at IIT, Delhi.

Methodology

The methodology followed for this audit has been as follows:


Air Quality Impact Assessment by Changeover to CNG Buses in Delhi

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.
Prof. Dinesh Mohan, Prof. S.R. Kale, Prof. Sanjeev Sanghi

Introduction

CNG buses have been made mandatory in Delhi from 1st April 2001. Due to inability to effect this changeover and various operational difficulties, this deadline has been extended by 6 months to 30th September 2001. The motivation of this changeover is to reduce emission from buses because C.N.G. fuelled buses are expected to be less polluting than diesel fuelled buses, which in turn will improve the ambient air quality. The changeover increases the cost of the bus, a cost that will be eventually borne by the bus users. With about 40% of the chartered bus users and 20% of stage carriage (DTC, blue line, etc.) bus users owning 2-wheelers, this increase in bus fares could make 2-wheelers economical for some of them. Consequently, some of these bus users are likely to give-up bus transport and travel by their personal 2-wheelers or cars, most of which are 2-stroke and 4 stroke petrol engines. As a result, the gains in emission reduction from buses are likely to be offset by increased use of 2-wheelers and some cars. Yet another option would be to convert part or the entire fleet to Euro II standard diesel engines. This change-over, entails lower costs than conversion to CNG and results in some reduction in emissions. In the analysis presented below, change in emissions under these different scenarios has been described. These vehicular emission data are well correlated to road-side ambient air quality. It cannot, however, be correlated with the ambient air quality that is influenced by all other emitting sources, such as, stationary diesel generators, portable generators, factories, wood burning stoves, and kerosene cooking stoves, amongst others. Even when such an exercise is carried out, the impact of changeover to CNG is likely to be overshadowed by emissions from all these other sources. Since data on these sources is unavailable, the impact on ambient air quality because of changeover to CNG has not been estimated quantitatively.

Conclusions

This study can be summarized as under:

Conversion to CNG reduces NOx and PM emissions but increases CO and HC emissions from buses. The total cumulative health effect of increase in CO and HC and decrease in NOx and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) has not been evaluated in this study. No decision should be taken without such an evaluation.

There are no major differences in total emission from vehicles based on present traffic mix whether all buses use CNG, all buses use Euro-II engines or the mix is half and half between these two technologies.

As bus passengers shift from bus to 2-wheelers as a result of fare increases, the emission of all pollutants increases. Reductions in vehicular PM emission are realized only if the shift is less than 15%. For even a 5% shift of passengers from buses to 2-wheelers CO emission increases by 10% to 18% and HC emission increases by 15% to25%. These numbers rise to 32% to 53% and 40% to 69% for CO and HC respectively for a 15% shift. Even the PM emission shows an increase of about 1.5% for a 15% shift. The relative decrease in NOx is 22% to 26% for this case. These estimates are conservative as all the shifts have been assumed to be from buses to 2-wheelers and not to cars. Further, the increased congestion due to additional number of vehicles is likely to increase the emission levels of the pollutants.

Two-wheelers and buses are comparable contributors to PM emissions and, hence, any strategy for reducing PM emissions must target both these modes.

The per person per kilometer emission of every pollutant is lowest for bus travel and highest for cars and 2-wheelers, in that order.

Trends between 1994 and this study show that there has been a significant shift to cars and two wheelers. Unless this shift is controlled it would be difficult to control increase in emissions. This can only be done if bus transport is improved and fares not increased. A comprehensive policy regarding this has to be put in place before major technological changes are mandated.

A vast majority of people continue to travel by buses and their interests must be given the highest priority.

This study has not considered the pollution caused by SPM less than PM10 as no data are available regarding the same. It is known that smaller particles go deeper in the lungs and have adverse health effects. It is also known that CNG using engines produce a higher proportion of these particles.

Ambient air quality estimates have not been made in this study as data for other sources is not available. However, since there may be thousands of petrol, kerosene and diesel generators in Delhi, their contribtion to SPM and NOx would be substantial. Therefore, the actual reduction in NOx and SPM levels in ambient air would be much less than that calculated for vehicular emission alone. The limited benefit of complete CNG conversion with no passenger shift to personal modes would be significantly reduced. With shifts to personal vehicles the benefit may be offset at much lower levels than 15% as calculated earlier.

Recommendations

Emission standards should not specify particular fuels or technologies as such measures encourage monopolies and discourage technology innovation and competition in industry. They should only lay down regulations regarding emissions from engines and associated fuel quality.

The results of this study show that the benefits of converting the full bus fleet are not clear as there is not much improvement in overall air quality if the calculations are based on the actual traffic conditions and modal shares present on Delhi roads. The increase in fares as a result of more expensive buses is likely to shift bus passengers to cars and two wheelers and thus increase total pollution. Therefore, the requirement that all buses convert to CNG should be reassessed and put on hold until more definitive data are available.

It is not advisable for a whole bus fleet of a city to be based on the same technology of the same age. This can result in major disasters if something goes wrong. This will also preclude induction of new technologies as they become available in the future. A plan for a phased technology change should be developed and instituted.

The benefits of better technologies will be defeated if bus passengers shift to personal modes of travel due to fare increases. Therefore, the government must put in place a comprehensive policy of financing of public transport including cross subsidies. This could be done by invoking the "polluter pay principle". The data in this study show that cars and two wheelers have the highest pollution per passenger transported. Therefore, owners of cars and two-wheelers must be made to pay a pollution tax, the proceeds from which could be used for financing more efficient bus transport.

The problem of shift to 2-wheelers and cars from public transport has to be addressed irrespective of the fuel used by buses. Therefore, public transport has to be made more convenient, safe and efficient. The safety and efficiency of bus transport, and its attractiveness for users could be increased substantially if modern low floor buses are inducted in the Delhi fleet. This cannot be done if gas cylinders are fitted below the bus floor (present technology). Therefore, all future CNG buses should be required to have gas cylinders integrated in the roof of the bus.